• How To Cook Great Curry Recipes
  • How To Cook Great Curry Recipes
  • How To Cook Great Curry Recipes
  • How To Cook Great Curry Recipes
  • How To Cook Great Curry Recipes
  • How To Cook Great Curry Recipes
  • How To Cook Great Curry Recipes
  • How To Cook Great Curry Recipes
  • How To Cook Great Curry Recipes
  • How To Cook Great Curry Recipes
  • How To Cook Great Curry Recipes
  • How To Cook Great Curry Recipes

Alphabet Spices

A

Asafoetida

Description

Asafoetida is the dried latex (gum oleoresin) exuded from the living underground rhizome or tap root of several species of Ferula (three of which grow in India), which is a perennial herb (1 to 1.5 mtr. High).

Uses

Asafoetida is extensively used for flavouring curries, sauces, and pickles. It is also used in medicines because of its antibiotic properties.

Indian Name of Spices

Hindi : Hing Bengali : Hing Gujarati : Hing Kannada : Hinger,Ingu Kashmiri : Yang, Sap Malayalam : Kayam Marathi : Hing Oriya : Hengu Punjabi : Hing Sanskrit : Badhika, Agudagandhu� Tamil : Perungayam Telugu : Inguva, Ingumo Urdu : Hing

Foreign Name of Spices

English : Devil’s dung Persian : Angustha-Gandha French : Ferule Asafoetida German : Stinkendes steckenkraut Arabic : Tyib, Haltheeth Sinhalese : Perumkayam


Allspice

Description

Allspice trees are evergreen medium sized, grow up to a height of 8 to 10 meters and with a slender upright trunk and smooth greyish bark. The mail trees produce only few fruits. The male and female trees are similar in appearance and cannot be identified till flowering commences.

Uses

The major use of allspice is in food industry (65 to 70%) in domestic use (5% to 10%), production of berry oil (20% to 25%), extraction of oleoresin (1% to 2%) and pharmaceutical and perfume industry. Berry, berry oil, oleoresin, leaf oil are products of economic use. It is used mostly in Western cooking and less suitable for Eastern cooking. It has medicinal, anti-microbial, insecticidal, nematicidal, anti-oxidant and deodorant properties.

Indian Name of Spices

Kannada : Gandamenasu Malayalam : Sarvasugandhi Tamil : Sarvasukanthi

Foreign Name of Spices

Arabic : Bahar, : Allehande Dutch : Jamaica pepper, piment English : Jamaica pepper, myrtle pepper, pimento, newspice Estonian : Harilik pimwnsipuu, Vurts Finnish : Maustepippuri French : Piment. Piment Jamaique, Poivre aromatique, toute-epice, poivre de la Jamaique German : Piment Neugewurz, Allgewurz, Nelkenpeffer, Jamaicapfeffer, Englisches Gewurz Hungarian : Jamaikai szegfubors, Szegfubors, Pimento, Amomummag Icelandic : Allrahanda Italian : Pimento, pepe di Giamaica Norwegian : Allehande Polish : Ziele angielskie Portuguese : Pimenta da Jamaica Russian : Yamaiskiy pjerets Spanish : Pimienta de Jamaica, Pimienta gorda Swedish : Kryddpeppar Turkish : Yeni bahar


Aniseed

Description

Aniseed is an annual plant with an average height of 30 to 50 cm. The plant is completely covered with fine hairs. Aniseed is ground-grey to greyish brown in colour,3 to 5mm in length, oval in shape with short stalk attached. Five longitudinal ridges are visible on each pericarp. Vittae (oil ducts) are almost always present embedded in the fruit wall beneath the ridges. It has a characteristic agreeable odour and a pleasant aromatic taste.

Uses

It is used mainly as a flavourant, culinary, household, cosmetic and medicinal. The fruit of anis, commercially called aniseed is widely used for flavouring curries, bread, soups, baked goods, dried figs, deserts, cream cheese, pickles, egg dishes, non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages. The essential oil is valuable in perfumery. The oil is used for production of anethole and sometimes as sensitizer for bleaching colours in photography. The other functional properties are anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-oxidant, stimulant, carminative and expectorant.

Indian Name of Spices

Hindi : Valaiti saunf or aawonf Bengali : Muhuri, Mitha jira Gujarati : Anisi, Sowa Kannada :sompu Malayalam:Shombu Marathi :Somp, Badishop Oriya :Sop Punjabi :Valaiti sounf Sanskrit :Shatapusapa Tamil :Shombu Telugu :Kuppi soptu



B

Basil

Description

Basil also known as French Basil or Sweet Basil or Tulsi is an erect glabrous herb, 30-90 cm high is indigenous to India. The leaves of basil have numerous oil glands with aromatic volatile oil. The herb bears cluster of small white lipped flowers in racemes. The freshly picked bright green leaves turns brownish green when dried and become brittle and curled. The major types are American Basil, French Basil, Egyptian Basil and Indian Basil.

Uses

The dried leaves and tender four sided stems are used as spice for flavouring and for extraction of essential oil. Apart from flavouring numerous foods, it is used for seasoning in tomato paste products. The sweet basil oil is widely used in perfumery compounds. It has application in areas of medicine and also used as an insecticide and bactericide.

Indian Name of Spices

Assamese : Tulasii Hindi : Bawari bawari,Ban thulasi, �Tulsi Bengali : Babui tulsi Gujarati : Sabje Kannada : Amli, Huli Malayalam : Pachcha/sivatulasi Marathi : Sabja/Tulasa Oriya : durlabha Punjabi : Imli, Tulasigidda,Tulasi Sanskrit : Barbari,Bana thulasi,Tungi Tamil :Tulasi,Tirunirrippachai Telugu : Tulsi-chettu Urdu : Imli

Foreign Name of Spices

Spanish : Alba Laca French : Basilic German : Basilienkraut Swedish : Basilkort Arabic : Raihan Dutch : Basilicum Italian : Basilico Portuguese : Manjericao Russian : Basilik Japanese : Meboki Chinese : Lo-le Thai : Horapa,Horapha English : Sweet Basil


Bay Leaf

Description

Bay Leaf or Laurel Leaf are dried leaves or an evergreen shrub or more rarely a tree attaining a height of 15 to 20 mtrs. The upper surface of the leaf is glabrous and shiny, olive green, and lower surface is dull olive to brown with a prominent rib and veins. The aroma of the crushed leaves is delicate & fragrant and taste is aromatic and bitter. The size of the leaves is ranging from 2.5 to 7.5 cms in length and 1.6 to 2.5 cms in breadth. The shape is elliptical and tapering to a point at the base and tip of the leaves.

Uses

Bay leaves are used as flavouring in soups, stews, meat, fish, sauces and in confectionaries. Both leaves and fruits possess aromatic, stimulant and narcotic properties. The essential oil from the leaves are also used as spice and food flavouring agent and has wider application in traditional medicines of different countries. The major functional properties are anti-microbial, anti-fungal, hypoglycaemic, anti-ulcerogenic etc.

Foreign Name of Spices

Spanish : Laurel French : Laurier German : Lorbeer Swedish : Lager Arabic : Ghar Dutch : Laurier Italian : Alloro Portuguese : Loureiro Russian : Laur Japanese : Gekkeiju Chinese : Yuch-kuei English : Sweet laurel,Bayleaf


Bishops Weed

Description

An erect, glabrous or minutely pubescent, branched annual. The stems are striate; the leaves are rather distant, 2-3-pinnately divided, the segments linear. The flowers occur in terminal or seemingly-lateral pedunculate, compound umbels, white and small; the fruits are ovoid, muricate, aromatic cremocarps, greyish brown; the mericarps, which are the components of the fruit, are compressed, with distinct ridges and tubercular surface, 1-seeded.

Uses

It is traditionally used as a digestive aid, relieves abdominal discomfort due to indigestion and antiseptic. In southern parts of India dry ajwain seeds are powdered and soaked in milk, which is then filtered and fed to babies. Many assume that it relieves colic in babies and for kids it also improves digestion and appetite. Ajwain can be used as digestive mixture in large animals. In the northern part of India, Ajwain is often consumed after a heavy meal. It is commonly offered after dinner parties.

Indian Name of Spices

Hindi : Ajwain Bengali : Jowan or Joan Gujarati : Yavan Kannada : Oma Kashmiri : Jawind Malayalam : Omum Marathi : Onva Oriya : Juani Punjabi : Ajamoda, Avanika Sanskrit : Ajamoda, Avanika Tamil : Omum Telugu : Vamu Urdu : Ajowain

Foreign Name of Spices

Latin : Trachy Spermum Ammi Persian : Zinian, Nankhwah Arabic : Kamme Muluki



C

Cambodge

Description

Cambodge is a tropical fruit commonly known as ‘Malabar Tamarind’ is a medium size evergreen dioecious tree with rounded crown and horizontal or drooping branches attaining a height of 18 mtrs. Fruit is a berry having a size of an apple, yellow or red, 6 to 8 grooves, forming blunt lobes with tough rind, 6 to 8 seeds and succulent arils. Fruit is weighing 50 to 180 gms.

Uses

The dried rind is used as a condiment for flavouring curries. In Sri Lanka the dried rind with salt is used for curing fish. The rind contains hydroxy citric acid and is widely employed in anti-obesity drugs.

Indian Name of Spices

Hindi : Goraka Malayalam : Kodampuli Sanskrit : Vrikshamala

Foreign Name of Spices

Chinese : Guan-mu Dutch : Geelihars English : Malabar tamarind French : Gamboge German : Gummiguttbaum


Caper

Description

Capers also known as caper berry are immature flower buds of Capparius spinosa. They are small shrubs, reach 1 meter height, leaf stipules are transformed into spines, flowers are borne on first year branches, they are white with long conspicuum tassels of purple stamens. The flowers open in the morning and close by sunset.

Uses

The flower buds, semi mature fruits and young shoots with small leaves are pickled for use as a spice. It gives flavour, aroma and saltiness to Pasta sauces, pizza, fish, meats and salads. It is reduces flatulence and anti-rheumatic. It helps to improve liver function and used against arteriosclerosis, as diuretic, vermifuges and tonics. It has anti-oxidant property. Caper extracts and pulp are used in cosmetics.

Indian Name of Spices

Hindi : Kabra Kannada :Mullukattari Marathi :Kabur Punjabi :Kaur,Barar Telugu :Kokilakshamu

Foreign Name of Spices

Italian : Cappero Egypt : Caperberry Arabic : Kaber/Lussef French : Capre German : Kaper Greek : Kappari Spanish : Alcaparra


Caraway Seed

Description

Caraway of commerce is the fruit of a biennial herb. The plant has a fleshy root and slender branched stem that attains a height of 0.5 to 0.6 mtrs, with small white flowers in compound umbels. The fruit when ripened splits into narrow elongated carpel, 4 to 6.5mm long, curved, pointed at ends with 5 longitudinal ridges on the surface. The dried fruit is brown in colour has pleasant odour is with sharp taste. Seeds are hard and sharp to touch.

Uses

Caraway is widely used as a spice for culinary purposes and for flavouring bread, biscuits, cakes and cheese. It is also used for seasoning sausages and as medicine.

Indian Name of Spices

Hindi : Siya zira or Shia zira Bengali : Jira or Zira Kannada : Shime jeerige Kashmiri : Gunyun Malayalam : Shima jirakam Marathi : Vilaiti zirah Sindhi : Kalu Duru Punjabi : Zira-siah Sanskrit : Sushavi Tamil : Shimai shambu Telugu : Sima jirakai

Foreign Name of Spices

Arabic : Karaway Dutch : Karwif French : Grainsde Carvi Chinese : Fang Feng Greek : Karo Italian : Caro


Cardamon (Large)

Description

Large Cardamom is a perennial herb with subterranean rhizomes and 50-140 aerial leafy shoots. Each shoot has height of 1.7 to 2.6 mtr and possess 9 to 13 leaves in each tiller. Leaves are glabrous on both sides with a prominent mid-rib. Inflorescence is a condensed spike with yellowish perianth. Each spike has 10-15 fruits. Fruit is round or oval shape, capsule with reddish brown colour. Each capsule is trilocular with many seeds.

Uses

It is used as a flavourant in dishes like Pulavu, Biriyani and meat preparations. It is an ingredient in curry powder and spice masala mixtures and is also used in Ayurvedic and Unani medicines. It has applications in flavouring cola, biscuits, liquors.

Indian Name of Spices

Hindi : Bara Elaichi Bengali : Bara Elaichi Malayalam : Perelam Punjabi : Bara Elaichi Sanskrit : Brihadaela Tamil : Periya yalam Telugu : Peddayelaki Urdu : Bara Elaichi

Foreign Name of Spices

English : Black Cardamom,Nepal Cardamom French : Cardamome noir German : Nepal Cardamom Chinese : Xiang Doukou Nepalese : Elaa


Description

Cardamom of commerce is the dried ripe fruit (capsules of cardamom plant) often referred as the “Queen of Spices” because of its very pleasant aroma and taste. Cardamom is a perennial, herbaceous, rhizomatous plant. Based on the nature of panicles, three varieties are recognized viz. Malabar with prostrate panicle, Mysore with erect panicle, and Vazhukka with semi erect panicle. Plants are of medium size (2 to 3 mtr height) with pubescent leaves (on the dorsal side) and fruits globose in the case of Malabar, whereas plant robust (3 to 4 mtr height) with leaves glabrous on both sides with ovoid capsules in the case of Mysore. Vazhukka variety is a mix of both the above in physical characteristics.

Indian cardamom is offered to the international markets in different grades: ‘Alleppey Green Extra Bold’ (AGEB), ‘Alleppey Green Bold’ (AGB) and ‘Alleppey Green Superior’ (AGS) are names that register instant appeal worldwide. Cardamom oil is a precious ingredient in food preparations, perfumery, health foods medicines and beverages. India, a traditional exporter of cardamom to the Middle East countries where it goes mostly into the preparation of ‘Gahwa’ – a strong cardamom – coffee concoction without which no day is complete or no hospitality hearty for an Arab. Indian cardamom enjoys a premium preference in the Middle East, Japanese and Russians who relish it for its distinct enriching properties.

Uses

The major use is for the preparation of ‘gahwa’ – a strong cardamom coffee concoction which is a symbol for hospitality among Arabs. Apart from this cardamom is widely used as a flavouring material in whole and ground form. In Asia, it can add a lingering sparkle to every kind of dishes both traditional and modern. In Scandinavian countries it is used in baked goods and confectionaries. In Europe and North America it is an ingredient in curry powder and in some sausages products. Cardamom oil and oleoresin has applications in flavouring processed foods, cordials, and liquors and in perfumery and in Ayurvedic medicines.

Indian Name of Spices

Hindi : Chhoti elaichi Bengali : Chhoti elachi Gujarati : Elaychi Kannada : Yelakki Kashmiri : Aa�lbuduaa�l Malayalam : Elathari Marathi : Velchil Oriya : Alaichi Punjabi : Elaychi Sanskrit : Ela Tamil : Yelakkai or Elakkai Telugu : Yealak-Kayulu or Elakkayi Urdu : Ilaychi

Foreign Name of Spices

Spanish : Cardamomo French : Cardamome German : Kardamom Swedish : Kardemumma Arabic : Hal Dutch : Kardemom Italian : Cardamomo Portuguese : Cardamomo Russian : Kardamon Japanese : Karudamon Chinese : Pai-tou-k’ou


Cassia

Description

Cinnamomum Cassia (Chinese Cinnamon) is the dried bark of cassia which is a small, bushy, ever green tree, 18-20 mtr high and 40-60 cm diameter with a straight and cylindrical trunk and grey brown bark, 13-15mm thick when mature.

Uses

Dried Cassia bark is the spice. The essential oil is called cassia cinnamon oil (Oleum Cinnamon). Apart from its use as spice, it is a well known medicine reinforcing ‘yang’, the body fire. ‘Gui zhi’ (dried twig of cassia cinnamon) is collected in spring and summer and dried in the sun or in the shade used in decoctions, has analgesic and anti-pyretic properties.

Indian Name of Spices

Hindi :Jangli dalchini Gujarati :Tajj Malayalam:Ilavangum,vayana Sanskrit :Sthulatvak Tamil :Ilavangapattai Telugu :Lavangapattai

Foreign Name of Spices

Spanish : Canela de la China French : Cannelle de cochinchine German : Kassie Swedish : Kassia Arabic : Darasini Dutch : Kassia Italian : Cassia Japanese : Bokei Chinese : Gui pi/Gui


Celery

Description

Celery is an umbelliferous, aromatic, herbaceous plant grown for its leaves, seeds, oleoresin and essential oil. Celery plant is usually 30-60 cm high, erect with conspicuously jointed stems, bearing well-developed leaves on long expanded petioles. The rigid fruit is small, ovoid, 1 to 1.5mm long, 1 to 2mm in diameter, contains a small brown seed.

Uses

The dried ripped fruits (celery fruit) are used as spice. Leaves and stalks are used as salads and in soups. It is also widely used in meat seasonings, in flavouring beverages, confectionaries, ice creams and baked goods. It is figured as a natural medicine in different cultures. In modern medicine, it is used as a stimulant and for treating Asthma and liver diseases.

Indian Name of Spices

Hindi : Shalari, Ajmud, Randhuni Bengali : Bandhuri, Chanur Gujarati : Bodiajmoda Malayalam : Ayamodakam Marathi : Ajmoda Punjabi : Kernauli Sanskrit : Ajmoda Tamil : Ajmoda

Foreign Name of Spices

Spanish : Aipo French : Celeri German : Sellerie Swedish : Selleri Arabic : Karafs Dutch : Selderij Italian : Sedano Portuguese : Apio Russian : Syel’derey Japanese : Serorii Chinese : Chin


Chilli

Description

Chilli is the dried ripe fruit of the genus Capsicum. Capsicum annuum is an annual sub –shrub, the flowers of which are borne singly and fruits usually pendent, which provide red peppers, cayenne, paprika and chillies and sweet pepper (bell pepper) a mild form with large inflated fruits.

Capsicum frutescence is a perennial chilly with small sized pods which are highly pungent. It is commonly known as ‘bird chilly’ and ‘Tabasco’.

Different Varieties

BIRDS EYE CHILLI(DHANI)

  • Grown in Mizoram & some areas of Manipur
  • Blood red in colour,highly pungent
  • Harvesting season-October to December
  • Available in Calcutta market
  • ASTA colour value-41.7
  • Capsaicine-0.589%

BYADAGI(KADDI) 

  • Grown in Dharwar Karnataka
  • Red in colour with less pungency or without pungency
  • Harvesting season-January to May
  • Annual Production-21,000 tonnes
  • Available in Hubli-Dharwad markets
  • ASTA colour value-159.9
  • Capsaicine-Negligible

ELLACHIPUR SANNAM-S4 TYPE

  • Grown in Amaravathi District of Maharashtra
  • Reddish in colour and very hot
  • Annual Production – 1800 tonnes
  • Harvesting season-September to December
  • Available in Bombay,Delhi,Ahemedabad and Nagpur
  • ASTA colour value – 70.40
  • Capsaicine-0.2%

GUNTUR SANNAM-S4 TYPE

  • Grown in Guntur,Warangal,Khammam Districts of Andhra Pradesh
  • Skin thick,hot and red
  • Harvesting season – December to May
  • Annual Production – 2,80,000 tonnes
  • Available in Guntur market
  • ASTA colour value- 32.11
  • Capsaicine-0.226%

HINDPUR-S7

  • Grown in Hindpur in Andhra Pradesh
  • Red in colour,hot and highly pungent
  • Harvesting season- December to March
  • Available in Hindpur
  • Capsaicine-0.24
  • ASTA colour value- 33.00

JWALA

  • Grown in Kheda, Mehsana & in South Gujarat
  • Highly pungent, light red in colour,short and the seeds are compact
  • Harvesting season-September to December
  • Available in Unjha market
  • Capsaicine-0.4%

KANTHARI-WHITE

  • Grown in Kerala & some parts of Tamil Nadu
  • Short and ivory white in colour with high pungency
  • Mainly grown as a homestead crop
  • Available in the markets throughout the year
  • ASTA colour value- 2.96
  • Capsaicine-0.504%

KASHMIR CHILLI

  • Grown in temperate regions such as Himachal Pradesh,Jammu & Kashmir and also in sub-tropical regions of North India during winter season
  • Long,fleshy,deep red in colour
  • Harvesting season- November to February
  • Available in major markets of North India
  • ASTA colour value- 54.10
  • Capsaicine-0.325%

MADHYA PRADESH G.T.SANNAM

  • Grown in Indore, Malkapur Chikli and Elachpur areas of Madhya Pradesh
  • Red in colour and pungent
  • Harvesting season-January to March
  • Annual Production – 7500 tonnes
  • Available in major markets of Madhya Pradesh.

Uses

Dry chilly is extensively used as spice in curried dishes. It is also used as an ingredient in curry powder and in seasonings. Bird chilly is used in making hot sauces as pepper sauce and Tabsco sauce. Paprika, Bydagi chilly, Warangal chapatta and similar high colour less pungent varieties are widely used for colour extraction. This colour is highly popular among food and beverage processors for its use as a colourant, since this being a ‘natural plant colour’. As a medicine it is used as an counter irritant in Lumbago, Neuralgia, and Rheumatic disorders. Capsicum has a tonic and carminative action. Taken inordinately it may cause gastro-enteritis. The enzyme isolated from chilly is used in the treatment of certain type of cancers. Oleoresin capsicum is used in pain balms and vaporubs. Dehydrated green chilly is a good source of vitamin ‘c’

Indian Name of Spices

Hindi : Lal mirch Bengali : Lanka, Lankamorich Gujarati : Marcha Kannada : Mensina kai Malayalam : Mulaku Marathi : Mirchi Oriya : Lanka Punjabi : Lalmirch Tamil : Milagay Telugu : Mirapa kaya Urdu : Lalmirch

Foreign Name of Spices

Spanish : Pimenton French : Puvre de Guinee German : Paprika Arabic : Filfil Ahmar Dutch : Spaanse Peper Italian : Peperone Portuguese : Pimento Russian : Struchkovy pyeret Japanese : Togarashi Chinese : Hesiung Yali chiao British : Chillies(Hot) Pepper(Sweet)


Cinnamon

Description

The “True Cinnamon” or Sri Lankan Cinnamon is the dried inner stem bark of Cinnamomum Verum. Cinnamon plants are grown as bushes. When the plants are of two years age, they typically measure at about 2 meter in high and 8-12 cm at the base. It is at this stage they are ready for harvesting.

Uses

The commercial products of cinnamon are quills, quillings, featherings, chips, cinnamon bark oil and cinnamon leaf oil. ‘Quills’ are scraped peel of the inner bark of the mature cinnamon shoots, joined together with overlapping tubes, the hollow of which has been filled with smaller pieces of cinnamon peels which is dried first in the sun and thereafter in the shade. ‘Quillings’ are broken pieces and splits of all grades of cinnamon quills. ‘Featherings’ are feather like pieces of inner bark consisting of shavings and small pieces of bark left over. Cinnamon ‘chips’ are rough unpeelable barks scraped off from the thicker stems. Cinnamon leaf and bark oil are obtained by distilling the leaf and bark separately. Cinnamon bark is a popular spice with a delicate fragrance and a warm agreeable taste. It is used in the form of small pieces or powder. It is widely used in flavouring confectionary, liquors, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. It is found to help diabetics in digestion of sugar. It has astringent; stimulant and carminative properties and can check nausea and vomiting. The cinnamon bark oil has anti-fungal properties and cinnamon leaf oil is widely used in perfumery and cosmetics

Indian Name of Spices

Hindi : Dalchini, Darchini Bengali : Dalchini Gujarati : Dalchini Kannada : Lavangapattai Malayalam : Karuvapatta Marathi : Dalchini Oriya : Dalchini Punjabi : Dalchini Sanskrit : Darushila Tamil : Karuvapattai, Sannalavangapattai Urdu : Dalchini

Foreign Name of Spices

Arabic : Querfa Indonesia :Kayu manis Persian : Darchin Sinhala : Kurundu Turkish : Tarcin


Clove

Description

The clove of commerce is the air-dried unopened flower bud obtained from evergreen medium sized tree. The tree grows to a height of 10-12 mtrs and start flowering in about 7 years. It continues to produce flower buds for 80 or more years. It is a valuable spice of the orient. Clove clusters are plucked by hand when the buds are fully developed with a pronounced pink flush and then dried over several days in the sun. Unopened flower buds, leaves and stalks yield essential oil.

Uses

The use of clove in whole or ground form is mainly for culinary purposes and as a flavouring agent in food industry. Its flavour blends well with both sweet and savory dishes. It is highly valued in medicine as carminative, aromatic and stimulant. In Indonesia, the lion share of production is consumed in production of ‘kretek’ cigarettes. The antiseptic and antibiotic properties of clove oil are used in medicine especially in dentistry, oral and pharyngeal treatments. It has wider applications in preparations of toothpaste and mouthwashes, soaps and perfumes. It is also reported to help diabetics in sugar assimilations.

Indian Name of Spices

Hindi : Laung Bengali : Lawang Gujarati : Lavang Kannada : Lavanga Malayalam : Grambu Marathi : Luvang Oriya : Labang Punjabi : Laung Sanskrit : Lavanga Tamil : Kirambu, Lavangam Telugu : Lavangalu Urdu : Laung

Foreign Name of Spices

Arabic : Kabsh ,Qarunfil Chinese : Ding xiang French : Clou de girofle Indonesian : Cengkeh German : Nelke


Coriander

Description

Coriander is an important spice crop having a prime position in flavouring food. The plant is a thin stemmed, small, bushy herb, 25 to 50 cm in height with many branches and umbels. Leaves are alternate, compound. The whole plant has a pleasant aroma. Inflorescence is a compound umbel comprises 5 smaller umbels. Fruit is globular, 3 to 4 mm diameter, when pressed break into two locules each having one seed. Fruit has delicate fragrance; seeds are pale white to light brown in colour.

There are two distinct morphological types, one erect and tall with a comparatively stronger main shoot and the other bushy with a relatively weaker main shoot and longer spreading branches.

Uses

The young plant is used for flavouring and garnishing curries and soups. The fruits (seeds) are widely used as condiments with or without roasting in the preparation of curry powders, sausages and seasonings. It is an important ingredient in the manufacture of food flavourings, in bakery products, meat products, soda & syrups, puddings, candy preserves and liquors. In medicines it is used as a carminative, refrigerant, diuretic, and aphrodisiac. In household medicines, it is used against seasonal fever, stomach disorders, and nausea. Coriander oil and oleoresins are primarily used in seasonings for sausages and other meat products.

Indian Name of Spices

Hindi : Dhania or Dhanya Bengali : Dhana, Dhania Gujarati : Kothmiri, Libdhaba Kannada : Kothambri, Kothamiri bija Kashmiri : Deaniwal, Kothambalari Malayalam : Kothumpalari bija Marathi : Dhana Oriya : Dhania Punjabi : Dhania Sanskrit : Dhanyaka Tamil : Kothamalli Telugu : Dhaniyalu

Foreign Name of Spices

Spanish : Cilantro French : Corriandre German : Koriander Swedish : Koriander Arabic : Kuzhbare Dutch : Koriander Portuguese : Coentro Russian : Koriandr Japanese : Koendoro Chinese : Hu-sui


Cumin

Description

Cumin is the dried, white fruit with greyish brown colour of a small slender annual herb. The surface of the fruit has 5 primary ridges, alternatively has 4 less distinct secondary ridges bearing numerous short hairs. The plant is 15 to 50 cm high. The aromatic seed like fruit is elongated, ovoid, 3 to 6 mm long, slightly bitter and has a warm flavour. The flowers are white or rose coloured in small umbels.

Uses

Cumin seed have an aromatic odour and bitter taste. It is used as a condiment, and is an ingredient in curry powders, seasonings of breads, cakes and cheese. It is employed in native dishes of Central and South America. In medicine, it is used as a stimulant, carminative, stomachic and astringent. Cumin seed oil is used in perfumery and for flavouring liqueurs and cordials.

Indian Name of Spices

Hindi : Jira, Jeera, Zira or Safaid jeera Or Zeera Bengali : Safaid jira or Zeera Gujarati : Jiru or Jeeru Kannada : Jeeriege Kashmiri : Zyur Malayalam : Jeerakam Marathi : Jeregire Oriya : Jira, Jeera Sindhi : Zero Sanskrit : Jiraka, Jira Tamil : Ziragum or Jeeragam Telugu : Jidakara, Jikaka

Foreign Name of Spices

Spanish : Comino French : Cumin German : Romischer Kummel Swedish : Spiskummin Arabic : Kammun Dutch : Komijn Italian : Comino Portuguese : Cominho Russian : Kmin Chinese : Machin


Curry Leaf

Description

The leaves of curry leaf tree is a spice. The tree is an aromatic deciduous one, five meter in height, 15-40 cm in diameter. It is cultivated mainly in homesteads but to a certain extent on a plantation scale.

Uses

The leaf is used in South India as a natural flavouring agent in various curries. Volatile oil is used as a fixative for soap perfume. The leaves, bark and root of the plant are used in the indigenous medicine as a tonic, stimulant, carminative and stomachic.

Indian Name of Spices

Assamese : Narsinghs, Bisharhari Hindi : Kathnim, Mitha neem, Curry or kurry patta, Gandhela, Bareanga Bengali : Barsanga, Kariphulli Gujarati : Goranimb, Kadhilimbdo Kannada : Karibevu Malayalam : Karriveppilei Marathi : Karhinimb, Poospala, Gandla, Jhirang Oriya : Barsan, Basango, Bhuraunga Punjabi : Curry patta Sanskrit : Krishna nimba Tamil : Karivempu, Karuveppilei Telugu : Karepaku

Foreign Name of Spices

French : Feuilles de cari German : Curryblatter English : Curry leaves Chinese : Ga lei yihp Dutch : Kerriebladeren Spanish : Hoja



D

Dill

Description

Dill is a herbaceous annual with pinnately divided leaves. The ripe, light brown seeds emit an aromatic odour. The leaves have pleasant aromatic odour and warm taste. Both seeds and leaves are valued as spice.

Uses

Dill seed is used both whole and ground as a condiment in soups, salads, processed meats, sausages and pickling. Dill stems and blossom heads are used for dill pickles. The essential oil is used in the manufacture of soaps. Both seeds and oil are used in indigenous medicinal preparations. The emulsion of dill oil in water is an aromatic carminative.

Indian Name of Spices

Hindi : Sowa Bengali : Sowa Gujarati : Surva Kannada : Sabasige Kashmiri : Sor Malayalam : Sathakuppa Marathi : Surva, Shepu Punjabi : Sowa Sanskrit : Satapushpi Tamil : Sathakuppi Sompa Telugu : Sabasiege Urdu : Sowa

Foreign Name of Spices

Spanish : Eneldo French : Aneth German : Dill Swedish : Dill Arabic : Shibith Dutch : Dille Italian : Aneto Portuguese : Endro Russian : Ukrop Chinese : Shin-Lo



F

Fennel

Description

It is a biennial, aromatic, stout, glabrous, 1.5 to 1.8 mtr high. The ripe fruit (seed) is small, oblong, cylindrical, 6.8mm long, straight or slightly curved, greenish yellow, deeply furrowed, 5 ridged and having agreeable aroma.

Uses

The leaves of fennel is used for garnishing. Leaves and stalks are used in salads. It is an essential ingredient in Italian sausages, widely used to sprinkle on pizza. Dried fruits have fragrant odour and pleasant aromatic taste and therefore used as a masticatory. They are also used for flavouring soups, meat dishes, sauces, pastries, confectionaries and liquors. The fruits are aromatic, stimulant and carminative.

Indian Name of Spices

Hindi : Saunf, sonp Bengali : Pan, Muhiri, Mauri Gujarati : Variari Kannada : Badi-sopu Malayalam : Perum jeerakam Marathi : Badishep Punjabi : Saunf Sanskrit : Madhurika Tamil : Shombei Telugu : Sopu, Pedda-jilakara

Foreign Name of Spices

Spanish : Hinojo French : Fenouil German : Fenchel Swedish : Fankal Arabic : Shamar Dutch : Venkel Italian : Finocchio Portuguese : Funcho Russian : Fyenkhel Japanese : Uikyo


Fenugreek

Description

Fenugreek seed is the ripe fruit of an annual herb. This robust herb has light green leaves, is 30-60 cm tall and produces slender, beaked pods, 10-15 cm long, each pod contains 10-20 small hard yellowish brown seeds, which are smooth and oblong, about 3mm long, each grooved across one corner, giving them a hooked appearance.

Uses

Fenugreek is used both as a food and food additive as well as in medicines. Fresh tender pods, leaves and shoots are eaten as curried vegetable. As a spice, it flavours food. Powder of dried leaves is also used for garnishing and flavouring variety of food. Fenugreek extract is used as a flavouring agent of imitation maple syrup. It is one of the principle constituent of curry powder. The seeds are used in colic flatulence, dysentery, diarrhoea, dyspepsia, chronic cough and enlargement of liver and spleen, rickets, gout and diabetes. It is also used as a carminative, tonic, and aphrodisiac. Fenugreek oil is used in the manufacture of hair tonics.

Indian Name of Spices

Hindi : Methe Bengali : Methe Gujarati : Methe Kannada : Menthya Malayalam : Ventayan, Uluva Marathi : Methe Oriya : Methe Punjabi : Methe Sanskrit : Methe Tamil : Vendayam or Venthiyam Telugu : Mentulu or Menthulu Urdu : Methe

Foreign Name of Spices

Spanish : Alholva French : Fenugrec German : Bockshorklee Swedish : Bockshornklee Arabic : Hulba Dutch : Fenegriek Italian : Fieno Greco Portuguese : Alforva Russian : Pazhitnik Japanese : Koroha Chinese : K’u – Tou



G

Garlic

Description

Garlic is a hardy, bulbous, rooted, perennial plant with narrow flat leaves and bears small white flowers and bulbils. The compound bulb consists of 6 to 34 bulblets called ‘cloves’ which are surrounded by a common, thin, white or pinkish papery sheet. Garlic has a strong flavour and taste.

Uses

Garlic is used for flavouring various dishes practically all over the world. In United States almost half of the produce is dehydrated for use in mayonnaise products, salad dressings and in several meat preparations. Raw garlic is used in the preparation of garlic powder, garlic salt, garlic vinegar, garlic cheese croutins, garlicked potato chips, garlic bread, garlicked bacon etc. Spray dried garlic products, liquid garlic preparations are other products. In India and other Asian and Middle East Countries, garlic is used in pickles, curry powders, curried vegetables, meat preparations etc. Oil of garlic is used as a flavouring agent in soups, canned foods, sauces etc. The other properties are anti-bacterial, fungicidal and insecticidal. In the area of medicine, it is used for various ailments of stomach, skin diseases. It has wider applications in indigenous medicines and is also considered as highly nutritive.

Indian Name of Spices

Assamese : Naharu Hindi : Lasun, Lessan, Lahsun Bengali : Rashun Gujarati : Lasan Kannada : Bellulli Kashmiri : Ruhan Malayalam : Vellulli Marathi : Lusson Oriya : Rasuna Punjabi : Lassan, Lasun Sanskrit : Lashuna Tamil : Ullipundu, Vellaippundu Telugu : Velluri Urdu : Lassun, Leshun

Foreign Name of Spices

Spanish : Ajo French : Ail German : Knoblanch Swedish : Vitlok Arabic : Thum Dutch : Knoflook Italian : Agilio Portuguese : Alho Russian : Chesnok Japanese : Ninniku Chinese : Suan


Ginger

Description

Ginger of commerce is the dried underground stem of the herbaceous tropical plant grown as an annual. The whole plant is refreshingly aromatic and the underground rhizome, raw or processed, is valued as spice. Ginger is a slender perennial herb, 30-50 cm tall with palmately branched rhizome bearing leafy shoots. The leafy shoot is a pseudostem formed by leaf sheath and bears 8 to 12 distichous leaves.

Uses

Fresh ginger, dry ginger powder, oleoresin and oil are used in food processing. It is indispensable in the manufacture of ginger bread, confectionary, ginger ale, curry powders, certain curried meats, table sauces, in pickling and in the manufacture of certain cordials, ginger cocktail, carbonate drinks, liquors etc. In medicine, it is used as carminative and stimulant. It has wider applications in indigenous medicines. The ginger oil is used as food flavourant in soft drinks.

Indian Name of Spices

Hindi : Adrak Bengali : Ada Gujarati : Adu Kannada : Shunti, Ardraka Malayalam : Inchi Marathi : Ale Oriya : Ada Punjabi : Adrak Sanskrit : Ardraka Tamil : Inji Telugu : Allamu, Sonthi Urdu : Adrak, Adhrak

Foreign Name of Spices

Spanish : Jengibre French : Gingembre German : Ingwer Swedish : Ingefara Arabic : Zanjabil Dutch : Gember Italian : Zenzero Portuguese : Gengibre Russian : Imbir Japanese : Shoga Chinese : Chiang


Greater Galanga

Description

Greater Galanga is the dried rhizome of a plant Alpenia galanga. This is a perennial, robust, tillering, rhizomatous herb. The plant is 1.8 to 2.1 mtrs high and bears perennial rhizome (2.5 to 10 cm thick), which are deep orange to brown in colour, aromatic, pungent and bitter. The pseudostem formed by the rolled leaf sheaths is erect, the inflorescence is terminal, many flowered. The fruits are about 13 mm long, constricted in the middle and contain 3 to 6 seeds.

Uses

The rhizomes have many applications in traditional medicines such as for skin diseases, indigestion, colic, dysentery, enlarged spleen, respiratory diseases, mouth and stomach cancer. Rhizomes show anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-protozoal, and expectorant activities. Young rhizome is a spice used to flavour various dishes in Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia and China.

Indian Name of Spices

Hindi : Kulanjan Sanskrit : Kulanjana Kannada : Rasmi Malayalam : Chittaratha,Kolingi Marathi : Koshtkulinjan Gujarati : Kolinjan

Foreign Name of Spices

French : Galanga,Souchet long German : Galgant Indonesian : Laos Thai : Dok kha Vietnam : Rieng Dutch : Grote galanga English : Siamese ginger Arabic : Galangal Chinese : Gou leuhng geung



K

Kokam

Description

Kokam is a slender evergreen small tree with drooping branches. It is a dioecious tree growing up to 18 mtr high. The fruit is spherical, purple, not grooved having 5-8 seeds compressed in an acid pulp.

Uses

The ripened, rind and juice of Kokam fruit are commonly used in cooking. The dried and salted rind is used as a condiment in curries. It is also used as a garnish to give an acid flavour to curries and for preparing attractive, red, pleasant flavoured cooling syrup. Kokam butter used as an edible fat, is nutritive, demulcent and antiseptic. The rind has antioxidant property

Indian Name of Spices

Hindi : Kokam Bengali : Kokam Gujarati : Kokan Kannada : Murgala Malayalam : Punampulli Marathi : Amsol, Katambi, Kokam, Ratamba Punjabi : Kokam Tamil : Murgal

Foreign Name of Spices

English : Indian Tallow tree/Garcinia French : Brindonnier Japanese : Garushinia



M

Mustard

Description

Mustard is an annual herb cultivated as oil seed crop or as vegetable or as fodder, of which, 3 species are known for its condiment value. They are pale yellow or white mustard (Brassica hirta), brown mustard (Brassica juncea) and black mustard (Brassica nigra). The leaves of the plant are alternate, long, bristly branched, petiolate, hairy on both sides. Flowers are small, yellow with 4petals, cruciform. Seeds are 1.5-3mm.

Uses

The major processed products are mustard powder used in the manufacture of mayonnaise, dried or dehydrated mustard leaves, whole mustard seeds etc. Whole mustard is used as a flavouring agent in Indian cooking, whereas ground mustard provides flavour and consistency in Bengali fish curries. Mustard flour has preservative and antioxidant properties in addition to providing flavour and colour.

Indian Name of Spices

Hindi : Rai, Banarasi rai, Kalee sarson Gujarati : Rai Kannada : Sasave Kashmiri : Aasur, Sorisa Malayalam : Kaduku Punjabi : Rai, Banarasi rai, Kalee sarson Sanskrit : Asuri, Bimbata Tamil : Kadugo Telugu : Avalu Urdu : Rai, Banarasi rai, Kalee sarson

Foreign Name of Spices

Spanish : Mostaza French : Moutarde German : Senfsaat Swedish : Senap Arabic : Khardal Dutch : Mosterd Italian : Senape Portuguese : Mostarda Russian : Gorchitsa Japanese : Shiro Karashi Chinese : Chieh


N

Nutmeg & Mace

Description

Nutmeg & Mace are two distinctly different spices produced from a fruit of an evergreen tree usually 9-12 mtr high. Mace is the dried reticulated ‘aril’ of the fruit and nutmeg is the dried seed kernel of the fruit. The trees are normally unisexual, bearing either male or female flowers. The male flowers are born in clusters, whereas female flowers are often solitary. Fruit is a fleshy drupe, spherical in shape, pale yellow in colour with a longitudinal groove in the centre. When the fruit mature it burst open along the groove exposing the bright attractive mace, covering the hard black, shiny shell of the seed called nutmeg.

Uses

Both nutmeg and mace are used as condiment particularly in sweet foods. The spice in the ground form is mainly used in the food processing industry especially as a standard seasoning in many Dutch dishes. Nutmeg oleoresin is used in the preparation of meat products, soups, sauces, baked foods, confectionaries, puddings, seasoning of meat and vegetable etc. The fleshy outer cover of the fruit is crystallized or pickled or made into jellies. Mace is used in savoury dishes. It is used as a drug in Eastern countries because of its stimulant, carminative, astringent and aphrodisiac properties. Excessive doses have a narcotic effect. Nutmeg oil is used in cosmetics and toiletries.

Indian Name of Spices

Hindi : Jaiphal Bengali : Jaiphal Gujarati : Jaiphal Kannada : Jayikai Kashmiri : Zaaphal Malayalam : Jathikka Marathi : Jaiphal Oriya : Jaiphala Punjabi : Jaiphal Sanskrit : Jatiphala Tamil : Jathikai Telugu : Jajikai Urdu : Jaiphal

Foreign Name of Spices

Arabic : Jouza at-Teeb Chinese : Dou kou shu Dutch : Nootmuskaat French : Muscade German : Muskatnu Greek : Moschokarido Indonesia : Pala Italian : Noce moscata Spanish : Moscada


S

Saffron

Description

Saffron, the most expensive spice in the world is derived from the dry stigmata of the plant Crocus Sativus. The plant is a bulbous, perennial with globular corms, 15-20 cm high. It has 6 to 10 leaves present at anthesis, one to two flowers with a lilac-purple colour with perianth segments of 3.5 – 5 cm and style branches of 2.5 – 3.2 cm. The yellow style is deeply divided into three branches and the stigmata are bright red. Flowers are arising directly from the corms. Flowers have tri-lobed stigma, which along with the style tops yield the saffron of commerce.

Uses

Saffron is used as a culinary seasoning and to colour, cottage cheese, chicken and meat, rise, mayonnaise, liquors and cordials. It is also used in speciality breads, cakes, confectionaries, Mughlai dishes. Saffron is also used as a perfume in cosmetics. In medicine saffron is used in fevers, melancholia, and enlargement of liver and spleen. In Ayurvedic medicine it is used to heal arthritis, impotence and infertility. It has wide range of uses in Chinese and Tibetan medicines.

Indian Name of Spices

Hindi : Kesar Bengali : Jafran Gujarati : Keshar Kannada : Kumnkuma kesari Kashmiri : Kong Malayalam : Kunkumapoove Marathi : Keshar, Kesara Punjabi : Kesar, Zafran Sanskrit : Keshara, Kunkuma, Aruna, Asra, Asrika Tamil : Kungumapoo Urdu : Zafran

Foreign Name of Spices

Spanish : Azafran French : Safran German : Safran Swedish : Saffran Arabic : Zafran Dutch : Saffraan Italian : Zafferano Portuguese : Acofrao Russian : Shafran Japanese : Safuran Chinese : Fan Hung-Hua


Star Anise

Description

Star anise is the dried, star shaped fruit of Illicium verum. It is an evergreen tree attaining a height of 8-15 meters and a diameter of 25 cm. The leaves are entire, 10-15 cm long, 2.5 – 5 cm broad, elliptic, flowers are solitary, white to red in colour. Fruits are star shaped, reddish brown consisting of 6-8 carpels arranged in a whorl. Each carpel is 10 mm long, boat shaped, hard and wrinkled containing a seed. Seeds are brown, compressed, ovoid, smooth, shiny and brittle.

Uses

Star anise is one of the signature flavours of Chinese savory cooking. The five-spice powder mix common in China contains star anise. It is used to flavour vegetables, meat, and to marinate meat. It is used as a condiment for flavouring curries, confectionaries, spirits, and for pickling. It is also used in perfumery. The essential oil of star anise is used to flavour soft drinks, bakery products and liquors. The fruit is anti-bacterial, carminative, diuretic and stomachic. It is considered useful in flatulence and spasmodic.

Indian Name of Spices

Hindi : Anasphal Malayalam : Takkolam Marathi : Badian Oriya : Anasphul Tamil : Anashuppu Telugu : Anaspuvu Urdu : Badyani

Foreign Name of Spices

Chinese : Ba jiao Czech : Badyan Dutch : Steranijs French : Anis de la chine German : Sternanis Indonesia : Bunga lawang Italian : Anice stellato Nepali : Star phul Russian : Badyan Spanish : Badian


T

Tamarind

Description

The ripe fruit of tamarind tree is used as a condiment. It is a moderate size to large, evergreen tree, up to 24 mtr in high and 7 mtr in girth. Bark is brown or dark gray, longitudinally and horizontally fissured. Leaves are paripinnate up to 15 cm long, leaflets are 10-20 pairs, oblong, 8-30 mm. Flowers are small, yellowish with pink stripes, pods are 7.5-20 cm long, 2.5 cm broad, 1 cm thick, more or less constricted between seeds, slightly curved, brownish coloured. Seeds are 3-12 oblong compressed, 1.5 cm, dark brown shining. Endocarp is light brownish, sweetish or acidic, edible pulp, traversed by branched ligneous strands. The outer cover of the pod is fragile and easily separable.

Uses

Tamarind pulp is used in numerous culinary preparations. It is also a raw material for the preparation of wine like beverages. The tamarind kernel powder is found to be extensively used for its sizing properties, in textile, confectionary, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries. The testa is used in dyeing and tanning industry. The tender leaves and flowers are used as vegetables. In medicine, it is used as appetizing, laxative, healing and anti-helmintic. It is also used against fluorosis.

Indian Name of Spices

Asamese : Teteli Bengali : Tentul Gujarati : Amli Kannada : Huli Kashmiri : Tambari Malayalam : Puli,Valanpuli Hindi : Imli Oriya : Dalima Punjabi : Imli Sanskrit : Tintiri,Amli Tamil : Puli Telugu : Chintapandu

Foreign Name of Spices

Arabic : Tamr al-hindi Burmese : Ma-gyi-thi Chinese : Da ma lin Czech : Tamarind Dutch : Tamarinde French : Tamarin German : Tamarinde Italian : Tamarindo Japanese : Tamarindo Spanish : Tamarindo


Turmeric

Description

Turmeric is the boiled, dried, cleaned and polished rhizomes of Curcuma longa. The plant is a herbaceous perennial, 60-90 cm high, with a short stem and tufted leaf. There are 7 to 12 leaves, the leaf sheaths forms the pseudo stem. The lamina is green above and pale green below and has a length of 30-40 cm and width 8-12 cm. Inflorescence is a central spike of 10-15 cm length. 1-4 flowers are born in axil of the bract opening one at a time. About 30 flowers are produced in a spike. Seeds are produced in capsules and there will be one to numerous sunken capsules in an inflorescence.

Uses

Turmeric is used to flavour and to colour foodstuffs. It is a principal ingredient in curry powder. Turmeric oleoresin is used in brine pickles and to some extent in mayonnaise and relish formulations, non-alcoholic beverages, gelatins, butter and cheese etc. The colour curcumin extracted from turmeric is used as a colourant. Turmeric is also used as a dye in textile industry. It is used in the preparation of medicinal oils, ointments and poultice. It is stomachic, carminative, tonic, blood purifier and an antiseptic. It is used in cosmetics. The aqueous extracts has biopesticidal properties.

Indian Name of Spices

Hindi : Haldi Bengali : Halud, Pitras Gujarati : Haldhar, Haldi Kannada : Arishia Konkani : Halad Malayalam : Manjal Marathi : Halede, Halad Oriya : Haldil Punjabi : Haldar, Haldhar, Haldi Sanskrit : Haladi, Harita Tamil : Manjal Telugu : Pasupu Urdu : Haladi

Foreign Name of Spices

Spanish : Curcuma French : Curcuma German : Kurkuma Gelbwurzel Swedish : Gurkmeja Arabic : Kurkum Dutch : Geelwortel Italian : Curcuma Portuguese : Acafrao-da-India Russian : Zholty Imbir Japanese : Ukon Chinese : Yu.Chin